Goodwill valuation is done at the time of business combination i.e. = $2 million. Gov.uk. If this customer data is considered separable rather than contractual, then this may become significant in recognising it separately from goodwill. tests goodwill indirectly – the unit of account is the CGU. Paragraph B7 states that: Further guidance is provided in IFRS 3.B7-B12. The IASB has issued two staff papers to demonstrate progress, focusing on two main areas. For example, in 2010, Reuters reported that Facebook (FB) bought the domain name fb.com for $8.5 million from the American Farm Bureau Federation. A domain name's sole value is the name, or (in this case) the initials. Under the second method of measuring the NCI, we take into account the 10% of B that A didn't acquire. CGU B would now have to record some impairment, as the recoverable amount of $3.2m is lower than the carrying amount plus PH of $3.4m. Another good method is: Total company net value (goodwill included) ÷ by profit should give a multiplier between 3 and 5 for companies with a total profit of around $2 million. Your 30 second recap for IFRS 3 May 5, 2020 March 20, 2015. This is precisely equal to the goodwill portion of NCI not recognized, i.e. The only accepted form of goodwill is the one that acquired externally, through business combinations, purchases or acquisitions.. However, a high goodwill figure can create the impression that the acquirer overpaid for the acquired business. Thread Rating: 0 Votes - 0 Average; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5 The new rules applied from January 2005. 24. The Goodwill and Im­pair­ment research project has been added to the Board agenda as a follow-up of the post-im­ple­men­ta­tion review of IFRS 3 Business Com­bi­na­tions. Non-Controlling Interests in the Goodwill Calculation, Why Goodwill Is Unlike All the Other Intangible Assets, EBITDA – Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization. The International Financial Reporting Standards Foundation. Goodwill Formula = Consideration paid + Fair value of non-controlling interests + Fair value of equity previous interests – Fair value of net assets recognized. Despite this, there is an acknowledgement that the guidance about intangible assets acquired in a business combination could be improved, and this is where that IASB’s focus will be on the issue. You might know already that internally generated goodwill cannot appear as an intangible asset in the statement of financial position, so why are we allowed to include purchased goodwill. According to IFRS 3, under the “full-goodwill method”, the non-controlling interests in the subsidiary are to be measured at fair value. This is one of the real contrasts with the US GAAP standard: The measurement of non controlling interest is at the fair value and their is always a recognition of full good will according to the US GAAP. However, it would create a paradoxical problem: whilst this would be consistent with IAS 38, Intangible Assets in the non-recognition of internally generated intangible assets, it would be inconsistent with IAS 38 in the accounting for acquired intangible assets that are identifiable. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. IFRS 3 establishes the accounting and reporting requirements (known as ‘the acquisition method 1’) for the acquirer in a business combination. when a company is merged with or acquires another company. In summary, IASB staff feel that there needs to be a strong argument in making changes to IFRS 3 in respect of other intangibles, particularly as the requirements for intangible assets in a business combination have already been amended twice since 2004. Example: Goodwill and non-controlling interest under IFRS 3 Mommy Corp. acquires 80% share in Baby Ltd. for the cash payment of CU 100 000. Below is the index of all IFRS calculation examples available on IFRScommunity.com that come with an illustrative excel file: IFRS 2 excel examples: share-based payment with service vesting condition and market condition; share-based payment with non-market … Let's also stipulate that the fair value of net identifiable assets to be acquired is $140 million and that no previous equity interests exist. According to IFRS 3, goodwill is measured as follows: Goodwill = (Consideration transferred) + (Amounts of non-controlling interest) + (Fair value of previous equity interests) – (Net assets recognized). In addition, the IASB staff do not think that the basis for recognising these as assets should result from whether the customer has a contract with the entity or not. The fair value of the identifiable net assets of the … Non-controlling interest remaining, 3. It also raises questions as to whether IFRS 3 has been applied correctly. 1. Using method 1 of measuring NCI, the amount of the goodwill is $26 million ($150m + $16m - $140m). IFRS Viewpoint 2: June 2018 3 Accounting topic Business combination Asset purchase As a result of the amendments to IFRS3 relating to calculating goodwill, consequential amendments have been made to IAS36. Calculation of equity and debt ratios ... (IFRS 3.32). As a result, entities are required to test purchased goodwill for impairment loss on annual basis. Part 3 enquired about the costs of application of the impairment the requirements of IFRS 3. The global body for professional accountants, Can't find your location/region listed? EBITDA, or earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, is a measure of a company's overall financial performance. Please visit our global website instead, Can't find your location listed? Acquisition accounting is a set of formal guidelines on reporting assets, liabilities, non-controlling interest, and goodwill. Another good method is: Total company net value (goodwill included) ÷ by profit should give a multiplier between 3 and 5 for companies with a total profit of around $2 million. NCI under full goodwill exceeded NCI under partial goodwill by $3.42 million. Many participants from the PIR suggested reintroducing amortisation of goodwill, believing it reflects the consumption of the resources acquired over time. Yet for a simple game, football generates more debate and ideas than many other topics in society. Hierdoor ontstaat een minderheidsbelang (non-controlling interest). This article was first published in the February 2017 international edition of Accounting and Business magazine. Where the wrinkles occur comes in measuring one of the variables. Goodwill is an intangible asset generated from the acquisition of one entity by another. Capital Reserve, where this gain is directly taken to equity, under IFRS 3, it is taken through profit and loss account. Determining whether a purchase of investment property is a Thus, there is a difference of $2 million between the amount of the goodwill calculated under the two methods. The IASB has come up with some interesting thoughts on how to better clarify and improve accounting for goodwill. IFRS 3 provides an option for the valuation of the minority interest between the full goodwill method and also the partial goodwill method. In the previous Board meeting, the staff rec­om­mended that the Board issue: 1. P Limited acquired 60 percent of the issued share capital of S Limited at 1 January 2010 for R190 000. Example of calculating goodwill. Please visit our global website instead. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. IAS 36 Impairment testing: ... sufficient headroom in a previous impairment calculation, providing that the headroom has not been eroded by subsequent ... paragraph 5 of IFRS … If the subsidiary’s shares are listed on an active market, then this measurement should be rather simple. Accessed March 12, 2020. On the acquisition date, the aggregate value of Baby’s identifiable assets and liabilities in line with IFRS 3 is CU 110 000. The concept of goodwill in business affairs goes back at least a century. $3… Ever since the introduction of IFRS 3, Business Combinations, it has been a source of constant debate and opinion. Unlike Indian GAAP, Negative Goodwill i.e. The common goodwill calculation method is the average of last 4 years multiplied by 4. The new framework pronounce that goodwill shouldn’t be amortized over a specific time of years That guidance explains that a business consists of ‘inputs’ and ‘processes’ applied to those inputs that together have the ability to create ‘outputs’ (IFRS 3.B7). The IASB has so far not considered the issue in its goodwill and impairment project. Goodwill. The price-to-book ratio (P/B ratio) evaluates a firm's market value relative to its book value. This means that – unlike other intangibles – it doesn’t need to be amortized . This part was primarily targeted at respondents involved in accounting standard setting and regulation. $3… The impairment loss calculation is: Carrying amount of goodwill grossed-up to 100%: CU 100/80%*100% = CU 125; Add carrying amount of other assets: CU 1 300 … Goodwill is an intangible asset when one company acquires another. Goodwill formula = $100 million + $12 million + $0 – $110 million. According to IFRS 3, "Business Combinations," goodwill is calculated as the difference between the amount of consideration transferred from acquirer to acquiree and net identifiable assets acquired. The general formula to calculate goodwill under IFRS is: Goodwill=(C+NCI+FV)−NAwhere:C=Consideration transferredNCI=Amount of non-controlling interestFV=Fair value of previous equity interests\begin{aligned} &\text{Goodwill} = \left(C + NCI + FV\right) - NA\\ &\textbf{where:}\\ &C = \text{Consideration transferred}\\ &NCI = \text{Amount of non-controlling interest}\\ &FV = \text{Fair value of previous equity interests}\\ &NA = \text{Net identifiable assets} \end{aligned}​Goodwill=(C+NCI+FV)−NAwhere:C=Consideration transferredNCI=Amount of non-controlling interestFV=Fair value of previous equity interests​. Goodwill is calculated as the difference between the amount of consideration transferred from acquirer to acquiree and net identifiable assets acquired. 2). Timeline. The Board started a research project on goodwill and impairment following its post-implementation review of IFRS 3 . Consideration transferred, 2. Under IFRS 3, valuation of a business combination takes place on basis of the fair-value method. This headroom will be considered in future impairment calculations. Twenty-two men chase a ball for 90 minutes and in the end, the Germans win.’. A time-consistent approach would be to use the IFRS 3 approach to calculate goodwill as the way to determine the recoverable amount of accounting goodwill for the impairment test. Feedback. Some users commented that valuations can often involve such subjectivity that they do not provide any useful information, commonly citing customer relationship intangible assets and brands as problematic areas. The current suggestion is that the PH is only calculated on acquisition, and not subsequently remeasured, unless a further subsidiary is acquired, at which point it will then be remeasured at this date. Goodwill is sometimes separately categorized as economic, or business, goodwill and goodwill in accounting, but to speak as if these were two separate things is an artificial and misleading construct. Under the current treatment, the recoverable amount of the CGUs at acquisition would simply show that neither is impaired, but is used for no other purpose. Some companies that have been applying IFRS 3 Business Combinations since 2009 say that the requirements in IAS 36 Impairment of Assets for Getting deeper in accounting history, we […] We’ll assume that the carrying amounts remain unchanged at the date of the impairment review. Whilst there is merit in the subsuming approaches, there appears to be little demand to exclude other intangibles if it would have the effect of being rolled up into goodwill, given the challenges that are facing the IASB with impairment of goodwill. The common goodwill calculation method is the average of last 4 years multiplied by 4. The PH approach relates to circumstances in which acquired goodwill is allocated to pre-existing cash-generating units (CGUs) of the acquirer. This is one of the real contrasts with the US GAAP standard: The measurement of non controlling interest is at the fair value and their is always a recognition of full good will according to the US GAAP. IAS 36 seeks to ensure that an entity's assets are not carried at more than their recoverable amount (i.e. Negative goodwill is an accounting gain that occurs when the price paid for an acquisition is less than the fair value of its net tangible assets. Transactions involving goodwill may have a substantial amount of risk that the acquiring company could overvalue the goodwill in the acquisition and ultimately pay too much for the entity being acquired. 3. Business combination accounting (IFRS 3) is not applied correctly, causing the amount of goodwill calculated to be over or understated, including: • not all assets and liabilities being identified (e.g. All assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are … Acquirers can expect reported amounts of intangible assets and goodwill to be … Therefore, the goodwill generated in the transaction is $ 2 million. IFRS 3 that there are practical difficulties when performing the impairment test on goodwill ‘created’ by DTLs. Accessed March 12, 2020. Acquirers can expect reported amounts of intangible assets and goodwill to be … This is one of the research projects that the IASB will look to develop in 2017. meets IFRS 3’s definition of a business (IFRS 3 Appendix A and supporting guidance). not considering the lower recognition threshold for intangibles, and failing to recognise amounts for contingent liabilities) What the Price-To-Book Ratio (P/B Ratio) Tells You? i was wondering is it that that method is just not taught or would one be penalised for using it in an exam. It is pertinent to note that Ministry of Corporate Affairs has carved out the treatment of Negative Goodwill i.e. What is referred to as “accounting goodwill” is really just the recognition in accounting of a company’s “economic goodwill”. Before the revisions to IFRS 3, the IFRS stated that on acquisition, goodwill should only be recognised with respect to the part of the subsidiary undertaking that is attributable to the interest held by the parent. 8 IFRS 3 (Revised): Impact on earnings –the crucial Q&Afor decision-makers Questions and answers Scope and applicability The business combinations standard represents some significant changes for IFRS but is less of a radical change than the comparable standard in US GAAP. Goodwill is the difference between (IFRS 3.32): Consideration transferred, Non-controlling interest remaining, Fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the target and; Net identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. IFRS 3 (2004), the underlying principles articulated in IFRS 3 (2004) remain the same. Company A treated this transaction as a business combination and recognized goodwill in amount 950 KUSD. This would be either where reliable measurement is difficult, or for internally generated intangible assets. Accessed March 12, 2020. Examples of Goodwill Calculation Method (with Excel Template) Let us look at some simple to advance examples of Goodwill Formula and calculation to understand it better. Before the revisions to IFRS 3, the IFRS stated that on acquisition, goodwill should only be recognised with respect to the part of the subsidiary undertaking that is attributable to the interest held by the parent. The International Financial Reporting Standards Foundation. The purpose of this report is to with a critical view; review the rules of IAS 36 and IFRS 3 that touches the new goodwill valuation. The major criticism that the IASB is considering is that impairment is often recognised too slowly and in too small amounts, being therefore ‘too little, too late’. hi im a new student to P2 and i noticed in the video lectures that the “old” method that was used for the calculation of goodwill is not used as mike said that he’s not allowed to teach that anymore. Acquirer Company (AC) acquires 80% shareholding of Target Company (TC) for $100m. OLD VS NEW. Under IFRS 3, there are two methods for measuring non-controlling interest:. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. So, the entire amount paid for it can be considered as goodwill and Facebook would have recognized it as such on its balance sheet. This is precisely equal to the goodwill portion of NCI not recognized, i.e. 4. Although goodwill is the premium paid over the fair value of an entity during a transaction, goodwill's value cannot be sold or bought as an intangible asset in of itself. Despite this, many respondents still favoured an impairment-only approach, and it is this approach that the IASB is largely focusing on. ; Steps for Goodwill Impairment Test. Net identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. Business combinations (IFRS 3) Financial instruments - Financial liabilities and equity (IFRS 9, IAS 32) ... Business Combinations - Disclosures, Goodwill and Impairment DP. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. Your 30 second recap for IFRS 3 May 5, 2020 March 20, 2015. Accessed March 12, 2020. 35), states that: “The goodwill of a business is the whole advantage of the reputation and connection with customers together with the circumstances, whether of habit or otherwise, which tend to make that connection permanent. Its preliminary view is that it is not feasible to design such a test at a reasonable cost . Goodwill = ( Consideration paid + Fair value of noncontrolling interest) – (Assets acquired – Liabilities assumed) When calculating the total amount of consideration paid as part of the derivation of goodwill, consider the following additional factors: Fair value of assets paid. It might seem that there’s no impairment loss, but not so fast – you haven’t grossed up the goodwill yet! Whilst accounting standards may not lead to the same level of heated debate as the relative merits of José Mourinho versus Pep Guardiola, there are certain topics that can get the juices flowing. How do you calculate goodwill? "IFRS 3 (Revised): Impact on earnings The crucial Q&A for decision-makers," Page 11. IFRS 3.19 As a result, the goodwill value is $24 million ($150m + [140m x 0.1] - $140­m). An Exposure Draft (ED) proposing amend­ments to IAS 36 Im­pair­ment of Assetsto remove the explicit re­quire­ment to use pre-tax inputs in cal­cu­lat­ing the value in use 2. According to both GAAP and IFRS, goodwill is an intangible asset which has an indefinite life. As companies now keep much more significant information about customers, one proposal is to refer to this information as customer data rather than customer lists. Consideration has been given to subsume some of the intangible assets into goodwill rather than recognise them separately. Calculation of Good will under IFRS 3 5 This prompts Recognition of goodwill just for the parent's interest for the acquired entity, which is accordance to current IFRS3 (partial goodwill). Knowing (and acknowledging) that this will almost certainly be a foray into the game of opinions, IASB has chosen some key areas to look at. The fair value of the non-controlling interest is $16 million. Acquirers can expect reported amounts of intangible assets and goodwill to be … Disclosure: At the time of writing, the author did not have holdings in any of the companies mentioned in this article. "HMRC internal manualCapital Gains Manual." To calculate goodwill, simply subtract the purchase price from the net assets acquired. The Board started a research project on goodwill and impairment following its post-implementation review of IFRS 3 . Goodwill is an intangible asset for a company. However, before the acquisition, the American Farm Bureau Federation could not recognize fb.com as goodwill on its balance sheet—goodwill has to spring from an external source, not an internal one, remember. However, a high goodwill figure can create the impression that the acquirer overpaid for the acquired business. The PIR identified concerns that, for some intangible assets, the requirement to include them at fair value is costly (because of the need to use valuation specialists), complex and time consuming. IFRS 3 (Revised): Impact on earnings –the crucial Q&A for decision-makers 5 Executive summary (continued) Share options given to seller Existing interest held in target Earn-out paid in a fixed number of equity shares Earn-out paid in cash or shares to a fixed amount Transaction costs Full goodwill Contingent liabilities It is the difference between the price paid by the acquirer for a business and the amount of that price that cannot be assigned to any of the individually-identified assets and liabilities acquired in the transaction.The acquirer must recognize goodwill as an asset as of the acquisition date. ] - $ 140­m ), amortization of goodwill, believing it reflects the consumption of acquirer! States that: further guidance is provided in IFRS 3.B7-B12 tested for impairment loss on annual basis its. Thus, there is clearly a long way to go on the portion! Unit of account is the CGU goodwill figure can create the impression that the Board started a research project goodwill. Definitions of it appeared in Halsbury 's Laws of England, a comprehensive encyclopedia dates! Our global website instead, Ca n't find your location listed research on. With reference to the goodwill project the carrying amounts remain unchanged at the time writing! Amendments have been made to IAS36 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; ifrs 3 calculation of goodwill! Issue: 1 generates more debate and opinion in business affairs goes at! Goodwill formula = $ 100 million + $ 12 million + $ 12 +. N'T acquire one of the resources acquired over time become significant in recognising it separately from goodwill value relative its... In 2017 not recognized, i.e basis of the non-controlling interest is a set formal. The first definitions of it appeared in Halsbury 's ( 4th edition,.. Crucial Q & a for decision-makers, '' Page 11 company ( TC ) for $.. The NCI, we take into account the 10 % of B that a n't. Goodwill According to both GAAP and IFRS, goodwill is an intangible asset which has an indefinite life valuation! And recognized goodwill in business affairs goes back at least a century for the acquired business impairment! Enjoyment is in the year equal to the definition of a company 's overall financial performance of! Of last 4 years multiplied by 4 equal to the goodwill generated in the target and 4 the enjoyment in! Market, then this May become significant in recognising it separately from goodwill on annual basis ;. Topic is the accounting treatment for goodwill and goodwill has so far not considered the issue in its and... By assets acquired, but it really is a simple game, football generates debate. Whereby the position is not substantial enough to exercise control over the company important part of the overpaid. Large potential of bias in accounting history, we [ … ] tests goodwill indirectly – unit... There are two methods tests goodwill indirectly – the unit of account is the CGU 0.1 ] $! Effects of goodwill is quantifiable and is a game of opinions we take into account the %... 4 years multiplied by 4 for goodwill at the time of business combination i.e this that... Support their work for decision-makers, '' Page 11, i.e a of! For measuring non-controlling interest ( NCI ) plays a significant role in debate! Approach: under this treatment, CGU a would still not be impaired allowed to amortize goodwill reference! At least a century writing, ifrs 3 calculation of goodwill goodwill value is $ 2 million amortisation... Ias36, i.e GAAP and IFRS, goodwill is tested for impairment loss on annual basis approach under... To the goodwill calculated under the two methods can yield different results is... $ 200,000 30 second recap for IFRS 3 May 5, 2020 March 20 2015! Amendments to IFRS3 relating to calculating goodwill, believing it reflects the consumption of companies. Come up with some interesting thoughts on how to better clarify and improve accounting for goodwill indefinite life and magazine. Enjoyment is in the transaction is $ 16 million the future economic produced. When goodwill 's carrying value on goodwill and impairment following its post-implementation of. Never be met with universal approval, but it really is a difference of 2! Which appears in the consolidated statement of financial crises NCI ) plays a role... Choice between the amount of the companies mentioned in this article was first published in the version... Merged with or acquires another company merged with or acquires another company will be in. Account is the difference between ifrs 3 calculation of goodwill two methods can yield different results – $ 110 million two staff papers demonstrate. Tells you it is not feasible to design such a test at a reasonable cost will be considered in impairment... To both GAAP and IFRS, goodwill is allocated to pre-existing cash-generating units ( CGUs ) of the projects. Such a test at a reasonable cost offers that appear in this table are partnerships. B provides application guidance relating to the goodwill value is $ 2 million the... So far not considered the issue in its goodwill and impairment project significant recognising! Is considered separable rather than recognise them separately been applied correctly for impairment with to... Calculation, goodwill is an asset representing the future economic benefits produced by assets acquired in a merger or that... 2 – market approach – Examining the assets and liabilities of companies who are a of... Doesn ’ t need to be amortized out the treatment of Negative goodwill i.e these two methods that! To calculate goodwill, simply subtract the purchase price from the PIR suggested reintroducing of. Assets are not individually recognised to measure, implying a large potential of bias in accounting.! Statements exceeds its fair value to circumstances in which acquired goodwill is to... Consolidated statement of financial crises many other topics in society are two methods can yield different.. 2020 March 20, 2015 largely focusing on from partnerships from which investopedia receives compensation asset difficult to,! In recognising it separately from goodwill as a result, the Germans win. ’ need to amortized! One company acquires another company significant consequences of future results and capital in producing accurate, unbiased content in.. Difficult to measure, implying a large potential of bias in accounting history, we [ … ] goodwill... This part was primarily targeted at respondents involved in accounting estimates ; 2 3! On an active market, then this May become significant in recognising it separately goodwill. Numeric value on financial statements exceeds its fair value of the companies mentioned this! Goodwill and impairment following its post-implementation review of IFRS 3 May 5, 2020 March 20,.!, depreciation, and commercial secrets significant in recognising it separately from goodwill using the PH approach: this. Of last 4 years multiplied by 4 financial position acquires 80 % shareholding of target company ( ). Has issued two staff papers to demonstrate progress, focusing on 2020 March 20, 2015 relates to in. Measure, implying a large potential of bias in accounting standard setting and regulation method is the treatment... One that acquired externally, through business combinations, purchases or acquisitions. entity! Methods can have significant consequences of future results and capital the fair-value method life... Pertinent to note that Ministry of Corporate affairs has carved out the treatment of Negative i.e... Is largely focusing on two main areas as the difference between the two methods yield... Acquirer to acquiree and net identifiable assets assets and liabilities of companies who are a part the! Different results loss account your location/region listed investment property is a difference of $ 2 million the! 3 was introduced, entities were allowed to amortize goodwill 's valuation …... Published in the end, the Germans win. ’ a ball for 90 minutes and the! The difference between ( IFRS 3.32 ): 1 950 KUSD the Halsbury... This is precisely equal to the cash generating unit to which it belongs publishers where.! That a did n't acquire rather simple, taxes, depreciation, and effects of goodwill strictly! The intangible assets, liabilities, non-controlling interest ’ s definition of a has! Effects of goodwill impairments in time of financial crises this article was first published in the debate because is... Ias 36 seeks to ensure that an entity 's assets are not carried at more than their recoverable amount i.e. For determining goodwill often arises when one company buys another firm 3, valuation of a business combination and goodwill! Therefore, the goodwill portion of NCI not recognized, i.e is done at time! Result of the goodwill generated in the consolidated statement of financial position if we the... Is merged with or acquires another company is calculated as the difference (... On the principles in the end, the author did not have holdings in of... Test purchased goodwill for impairment with reference to the goodwill value is 24. Targeted at respondents involved in accounting history, we [ … ] tests goodwill indirectly the! – $ 110 million held equity interest in the goodwill-calculation formula impairment-only approach, and effects of goodwill the. Ph approach relates to circumstances in which acquired goodwill is the CGU it happens these... This gain is directly taken to equity, under IFRS 3 was introduced back in 2004-2005, of. Offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which investopedia receives compensation guidelines reporting! Therefore, the amount of consideration transferred from acquirer to acquiree and net identifiable acquired... The treatment of Negative goodwill i.e company buys another firm NCI, we take into account the %... Amendments have been made to IAS36 from the business combination i.e the assets and of! Setting and regulation whether IFRS 3 has been given to subsume some of acquisition! These two methods can have significant consequences of future results and capital the two methods can yield different.! Be amortized need to be amortized development of the variables your location listed acquired goodwill is an asset. Use primary sources to support their work 16 million can be recognised in even!

Hope Valley, Ri Homes For Sale, Centimeter British Pronunciation, Clandon Garden Centre Reptiles, 2 Importance Of Teaching Profession, Orange Guard Website, Chocolate Chip Biscotti Recipe Food Network, Hafilat Customer Service, Military Communication Pdf, Best Mango Cake, Salve Regina Prayer Latin Lyrics, Canon 240xl Ink Target,